Title 1 of the Malolos Constitution Simplified

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January 31, 2022

The President of the Council, Apolinario Mabini


We, the Representatives of the Filipino people, lawfully covened, in order to establish justice, provide for common defense, promote the general welfare, and insure the benefits of liberty, imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends, have voted, decreed, and sanctioned the following:

Title 1: The Republic

Article 1

The political association of all Filipinos constitutes a nation, whose state shall be known as the Philippine Republic

Article 2

The Philippine Republic is free and independent

Article 3

Sovereignty resides exclusively in the people.

Title 2: The Government

Article 4

The Government of the Republic is popular, representative, alternative, and responsible

It shall exercise three distinct powers: namely, the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Any two or more of these three powers shall never be united in one person or cooperation, nor the legislative power vested in one single individual.

Title 3: Religion

Article 5

The State recognizes the freedom and equality of all religions, as well as the separation of the Church and the State.