Title 7-8 of the Malolos Constitution Simplified

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January 31, 2022

Title 7: Executive

Article 56

The Executive Power shall be vested in the President of the Republic, who shall exercise it through his Department Secretaries.

Article 57

The administration of the particular interests of towns, provinces, and of the State shall correspond, respectively, to the Popular Assembles, the Provincial Assemblies, and to the Administration in power, in accordance with the laws, and observing the most liberal policy of decentralization and administrative autonomy.

Title 8: The President

Article 58

The President of the Republic shall be elected by absolute majority of votes by the Assembly and by the special Representatives, convened in chamber assembles. His term of office shall be four years, and may be reelected.

Article 59

The President of the Republic shall have the right to initiate the introduction of bills equally with the members of the Assembly, and promulgate the laws when duly voted and approved by the latter, and shall see to it that the same are duly executed.

Article 60

The power to execute the laws shall extend to all cases conducive to the preservation of internal public order and to the external security of the State.

Article 61

The President shall promulgate the laws duly approved by him within 20 days following their transmittal to him by the Assembly.

Article 62

If within this period, the President fails to promulgate them, he shall return them to the Assembly with his reasons for the return, in which case the Assembly may reconsider same, and it shall be presumed by a vote of at least two-thirds of the members of the Assembly present in a quorum.

If repassed in the manner indicated, the Government shall promulgate same within ten days, with a manifestation of its non-conformity. The obligation is imposed upon the Government if it allows twenty days to elapse without returning the bill to the Assembly.

Article 63

When the promulgation of a law has been declared urgent by express will of an absolute majority of votes of the Assembly, the President of the Republic may require the Assembly to re-approve same which cannot be refused, and if the same bill is repassed, the President shall promulgate it within the legal period, without prejudice to his making of record his non-conformity with the bill.

Article 64

The promulgation of laws shall be made by publishing them in the official gazette of the Republic, and shall have the force of law 30 days following such publication.

Article 65

The President of the Republic shall have at his disposal the army and the navy, and may declare war and make and ratify treaties with the prior consent of the Assembly.

Article 66

Treaties of peace shall not take effect until voted upon by the Assembly.

Article 67

The President of the Republic, in addition to his duty to execute the laws, shall:

  • Supervise civil and military employees in accordance with the laws.

  • Appoint the Secretaries of the Government.

  • Direct the diplomatic and commercial relations with foreign powers.

  • See to it that justice is duly and promptly administered throughout the Philippines.

  • Grant pardon to convicted criminals in accordance with the laws, except any special provision relating to the Secretaries of the Government.

  • Preside over all national functions and receive ambassadors and accredited representatives of foreign powers.

Article 68

The President may be authorized by special law:

  • To alienate, transfer or exchange any portion of Philippine territory

  • To incorporate any other territory to the Philippine territory

  • To admit the stationing of foreign troops in Philippine territory

  • To ratify of alliance, defensive as well as offensive, special treaties of commerce, those which stipulate to grant subsidies to a foreign power, and those which may compel Filipinos to render personal service.

  • Secret treaties in no case may prevail over the provisions of open treaties or treaties made publicly

  • To grant general amnesties and pardons

  • To coin money

Article 69

To the President belongs the power to issue regulations for the compliance and application of the laws in accordance with the requisites prescribed in said laws.

Article 70

The President, with the prior approval by majority vote of the Representatives, may dissolve the Assembly before the expiration of its legislation term. In this case, new elections shall be called within three months.

Article 71

The President of the Republic may be held liable only for cases of high treason.

Article 72

The President’s salary shall be fixed by special law which can only be changed after the presidential term has expired.

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