Chapter 14

Java (Shopo) Indonesia

January 23, 2022
Activity Method
Trade Copper money

The kingdom of Java is also called Pukialung. It is southeast of Canton and can be reached within a month.

East of Java is the sea where the waters flow downward and there is the kingdom of women.

West of Java half a month away is Kunlun. Five days away westward is Arabia

Still farther east is the Weilu, the end of the habitable world.

East of Java

month (to the west from ShO-p’o?)one comes (Jg) country. To the south (from the port or chief city

Kunlun is west of Java, sailing for half a month.

reached in three days’ journey (0 ^).

5 days journey from Kunlun is a country of the Arabs. 45 days Westward.

Westward one comes to the sea in forty-five days’ journey. Northward one comes 5 to the sea in four days’ journey (from the chief city?).

Sailing north-west from Java in 15 days leads to Brunei. Malaysia is 10 days from Brunei. Kulo is another 7 days. Another 7 days is Chailiting then Hai Phong Vietnam (Kianchi) and then Canton.

Java has 2 religions:

  • Buddhism
  • shoshon

one is the other that of the usho-sMniy is a hill on which

The king wears

live parrots and called «Parrot Hill» it is on his hair in a tuft (or knot), officers at their daily “When he goes forth he rides his head audience bow three times an elephant, or is is a golden a square is (^ armed : seat, when withdrawing. carried in a chair* followed by a company of from 500-700 When Buddha» beU; he wears a silken robe and leather shoes ^. His throne and his (^) Kuaug- There are two kinds of monasteries There more to the kingdom in the ^^^ reaches Hai Phong Vietnam and then to Canton kingdom you come in ten days soldiers. ' any one of the people sees the king, he squats down until he has passed by. Three sons of the king are made Fu-wang Of 3E Royal Deputies), they have Ssi-ma-Me (and) Lo-U-lien (^) J^ -^ conjointly manage the affairs of Government as the Tsai-siang officials who Ministers of State) do in China ^ They have no monthly salaries. But at intervals, they are given a liberal supply of native produce.

They have 300 or more civil officials who divide among themselves the government of the cities, granaries, and the treasury.

Their generals receive an annual salary of 20 taels of gold. Its army has 30,000 troops and get a fixed annual pay in gold.

Marriage do not employ go-betweens. Instead, they make presents of gold to the woman’s family in order to marry her.

They do not inflict corporal punishment or imprisonment. Instead, they are fined in gold according to the gravity of their crime.

Robbers or thieves are put to death.

Every June, they make pleasure trips in boats.

visit the either riding hill ponies ([Ij hills,

Of musical instruments they have:

  • the flute
  • kettle drum
  • castanet

They are skilled in pantomimes.

The hills are full of monkeys. They are not afraid of men, but if one calls siau-siau they come out. If one throws fruit before them, a big monkey, called a monkey king, comes forward to eat. The and the crowd of smaller monkeys eat what is left of his meal.

There are bamboo gardens where they have pig-fighting and cock-fighting.

fruit before or carried in a litter

The moon pleasure trips in boats; in the tenth

The dwellings are of imposing appearance and painted


going there are put up in in greenish tints visitors’ lodges, where food and drink both plentiful and good (are supplied them). The natives dress their hair and wear clothes which are girt around and reach down to the knees “. 20 their chest When they are sick, they take no medicines, but simply pray to their local gods or to the Buddha.

The people have personal names but no surnames.

They are quick-tempered and of a pugnacious disposition, and when they have a feud with both parties seek to joiu in battle.

In 435 AD, it entered into communication with China. But it was broken off until 992 when it again sent tribute to our Court.

It is a broad and level country, well suited to agriculture. It produces hemp, millet, beans, but no wheat.

Ploughing is done by buffaloes. The people pay a tithe-rent. They make salt by boiling seawater.

It is rich in fish, turtles, fowls, ducks, goats. They kill horses and buffaloes for food.

Their fruits are:

  • big gourds
  • coconuts
  • bananas
  • sugar-cane
  • taro

They have:

  • tortoise-shell,
  • elephants’ tusks
  • rhinoceros horns
  • pearls
  • camphor
  • sandal-wood, aniseed,
  • cloves
  • laka-wood
  • mats
  • foreign sword blades
  • cardamoms
  • cubebs
  • pepper
  • betel
  • sapan-wood
  • parrots.

They also pay silk; they have attention to the raising of silkworms and the weaving of cotton (± ^), and damasked cotton various coloured brocaded silks (|f nuts, saffron sulphur, gauzes (or damasks and cotton cloth

They make no tea

from the cocoanut raised in this country.

Their wine is derived

and from the inner part of the Ua-nm-tan not been seen by the Chinese, or else the kmng-lang ^ and well-flavored” (7ff «As to cane sugar, it is brown and white (liquors) are clear and very sweet to the ^^ fY) made by fermenting it is (the fruits) of all of these ‘^ #). brownish white (or ?) in colour i6 taste.

They cast coins in an alloy of copper, silver, white copper and tin.

60 of these coins are equal to 1 tael of gold. 32 are equal to half a tael of gold.

which tree has sago palm) and of the areca palm;

tree, two are equal to half a tael of gold» “-

Foreign merchants use in trading gold and silver of various degrees of H :^ ^), (^ fineness damasks {% ^), made vessels (ssi)-ch’mn-kung^^ of gold and silver, silk stuffs, black

orris-root, cinnabar, copperas, alum, borax, arsenic, lacquer-ware, iron tripods and green (or blue white porcelain-ware.

There merchant is ^) and

a vast store of pepper in ships, in view of the profit this foreign country

they derive from that trade, are in the habit of smuggling (out of China) copper cash for bartering purposes. Court has repeatedly forbidden tl-aders, for referred to all as Su-ki-tan.

Our trade (with this country), but the foreign the purpose of deceiving (the government), changed its name to Sukitan.

Java is adjacent to the following countries, dependencies of Java:

  • Paihuayuan

  • Bandung (Matung)

  • Trowulan (Tapan)

  • Hining

  • Jung-ya-lu

  • Tung-ki

  • Ta-kang

  • Huangmachu

  • Bali

  • Niulun

  • Tanjungwulo

  • Kewu (Tiwu)

  • Pingya

  • Iwu

  • Nuku

15. Yoyakarta Prambanan (Sukitan)

Yoyakarta Prambanan is a part of Java.

  • West of it is Sunda
  • East of it is Trowulan Tapan

It has a very tall mountain called Paulauan [Semuru].

Their king wears a turban of cotton cloth of variegated colours and goes barefooted.

When walking, he is shaded by a black or white umbrella. More than 500 attendants follow him, bearing every sort of weapon and wearing hats of various shapes.

Some are like a deer’s, others like the head of an ox, of a sheep, a fowl, an elephant, a lion or a monkey.

Little flags of coloured silk are stuck tiger’s head, some like in the side (of the hats). Among coiffure; they the natives, all wrap the men cut their hair, but the women wear their bodies in cloth, but go barefooted and wear a loin-cloth.

They use Java money whch is alloyed silver cut like dice with the seal of Fankuan stamped on it. 6 of these are worth 1 tael of trade gold. Each one can be exchanged for 30-100 pecks of rice.

Houses are the same as in Sunda. They have a lot of rice. Very wealthy families keep as much as 10,000 piculs in their granaries.

They have a tree called jackfruit which has a fruit like a pumpkin and skin like the chestnut, the pulp like mandarin orange.

It is extremely sweet and well-flavoured. here are also bananas and sugar-cane, in all respects the with this difference, however, that the complaint; that the bananas grow a lichee, when foot long, same as those of China, sun-dried, will cure bowel and sugar-cane to the height of 10 feet.

The juice of the latter, with the addition of a drug, liquor superior to (that derived from) the coconut

Their agricultural products are the same as Java. There is a lot of pepper.

brewed into a

of the soil are, on the whole, not different from those of a great abundance of pepper. At the right season and in good years, 25 taels of 20 packages is trade money»

of pepper, each package holding will 50 buy from ten to pecks (shong). In years of dearth, or in times of disturbance, the same sum will buy only half 20 that amount.

The pepper-gatherers inhale, and are commonly suffer greatly afflicted from the acrid fumes they have to with headaclie (malaria) which yields to doses of (ssl)-ch^uan-kung.

As cinnabar is much used women and also for dyeing the

in cosmetics (:J^ finger nails and by the Barbarian clothing of silk foreign traders look upon these two articles as staples of trade women,

Traders are treated generously. They are not charged expenses for either harborage or board.

Tapan [Mojokerto-Surabaya]

Tapan is east of Great Java and is also called Jungyalu (also Chungkialu)

Its houses are like those of China. The land is a level plain and is intersected by an anchorage. There is trade by land and sea.

Its native products are bay-salt sheep and parrots.

Their fighters are brave and fierce. They take wives from the pirate states of the eastern borders. The people of those states under pretext latter, of visiting relatives (married to the Fan-kuan and on board were frequently plundered way).

Matters went so far that captives were considered a most valuable commodity, each one being worth 2-3 taels of gold.

This is why trade with Tapan was broken off.

The pirate states are:

  • Tanchung pulo
  • Pali
  • Sunta
  • Kulun

The countries of Ta-kang, Huang-ma-chu, Bali, Tan-jung-wu-lo, Ti-(wu), Ping-ya, I-wu and Nu-ku are situated on islands.

Each has its own chief and have vessels plying between them.

There is little agriculture. But there are many old trees. The inner parts produce sago which looks like wheat flour. Water is mixed with it and are turned into pellets the size of peas. After being sun-dried, it is packed and stored like grain.

They also mix are fond porridge. each of them has islands; between them. There old trees, the inner parts of which looks like wheat sJia-hi (sago), it, vessels plying also of sugar-cane and by adding a certain substance made They have into wine.

mix it with fish or drug) is also the wei-pa^° packed is crushed caused to ferment and tree, (j^ g,) is whose pith being taken out and the juice extracted yields wine. The bodies. 25 natives (of these countries) are strong fellows, but savage a dark bronze colour. They cut They wrap their hair and of (a cloth round) their limbs and tattoo their and go barefooted. They use no vessels in eating or drinking; in their stead they bind leaves together, which are thrown when the meal As 20 meat and make a and bananas. The former (lit., 15 away

is finished.

The standard of exchange is only pecks and pints of sago. They do not know how to write or how to count.

They erect

wooden poles stuck in the ground and reaching twenty feet or more; on the top they build houses with walls erect stages with to a height of and roofs of the same type as those made by the The native products include sandal-wood, mats, foreign cotton cloth Among

by the Sinto.

Their exports are:

  • cloves
  • cardamoms
  • fancy mats
  • iron swords and other weapons


The islands of Sumba (Tanjung wulo) and Mali are larger than the others. They raise many horses for military service and they have a slight knowledge of writing and counting.

Their exports are:

  • laka-wood
  • yellow wax
  • fine aromatic substances
  • tortoise-shell

Although Tan-jung-wu-lo has such products, the people prefer piracy instead of legitimate business. This is why foreign traders rarely go there.


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