Chapter 45

Japan

January 7, 2022
Activity Method
Trade Copper Money

The country of Wo is northeast of Canton. It is currently called Ji-pon, meaning a country near where the sun rises.

Some people say that they changed the old name because they disliked it.

The country extends for several thousand li in all directions. In the south and west you come to the sea, in the north and east the country bounded by big hills. Beyond the hills is the country of the Hairy men.

The country is divided into 5 ki and 7 tau, 3 islands, 3772 communes, and 414 posting-stations. Its population is 883,000 male adults.

It is full of hills and forests without good arable lands, and therefore the Japanese like seafood.

king’s surname change for the and, just as in Hia dynasty were they cut their hair and tattooed the harmful attacks of dragon-monsters, so away the dive under water for fishing purposes. a calculation of the The climate resembles that The off from remote antiquity they have

Many tattoo their bodies and call themselves Tai Po. Since ancient times, they have sent envoys to China

, in order to drive when they lo themselves descendants the descendants of Shau-k’ang of the their bodies in order to From call styled themselves Tafu invested with the rule of Kuiki beasts of the sea and they It is also said^ that who *. of hills and forests and without good arable tattoo their bodies, sent envoys to China is three islands lands, the inhabitants have a liking for the various kinds of sea food Many 5 way thither, (Wo) due east from Kui-ki. lies of China

Wang and this last 70 generations at least. Civil has been so without and military offices are hereditary.

Men’s dresses together.

Women’s consist of strips of cloth crosswise, tied, not sewn, dresses are like bed sheets, with an opening to run the 30 head through, a whole cloth. worn suit consisting as a rule of two or three pieces of Both sexes wear their hair unbraided and go barefooted’. They have the Chinese standard works, such as the Five Classics and by Pal Lotien, all of which the Collection of poetry are obtained from China.

Japan has all kinds of cereals, but little wheat.

They use copper cash with the inscription Kien-yuan-ta-pau. They have water-buffalo, donkeys, sheep, but no rhinoceros, elephants.

They have gold and silver, fine silks and fancy cotton cloth.

They produces cryptomeria and lo trees, reaching to heights of upwards of fourteen or fifteen chang, fully four feet in diameter.

The natives split them sale.

Cantonese rarely go to Japan.

They have swords, shields, bows, The people

As regards music, they have the Chinese and the Korean which into planks, they transport in large junks to our port of Ts’iian-chou for notation and arrows which have iron (^). points, but they cannot shoot far with thek= bows, the reason being that in this country the people are not accustomed to fighting ^*. In their houses separate rooms are used as bed-rooms by father and 15 mother and by the different brothers “. When taking their meals, they use dish-stands and dishes (^ When contracting marriage, they do not make presents of money ^^. For the dead they have coffins S.)^^- but no coffin-cases {^). Their (>Ji^), tombs consist of simple earthen tumuli. At the beginning of their time of 20 mourning they lament and wail and the whole family takes a bath to Whenever important in order to foretell whether they no meat, but when the burial wash away affairs are to They do not know the 25 e.at ill-luck is over, from their bodies^’. be entered upon, they scorch bones will turn out luckily or otherwise ^«. division of the year with its four seasons, but reckon the year from harvest to harvest ^». The people attain to great age, frequently to about eighty or ninety years Women 2”. are neither licentious nor jealous. There when some one is no litigation, but found guilty of a crime, serious cases are punished by the extirpation of the culprit’s family, light offenses 30 wife is by the enslaving (j^) of his and children ^^ Gold and silver are used in paying taxes to the government; these metals are found in Yu6-ch6u (^ f\) in the east of this country, and in another island ^^ later Han dynasty

Japan has had relations with China since the later Han dynasty (25-221).

In 984, a Japanese named Tiaujan went to China with 5 or 6

to China with five name Tiau-jan(^^)2S or six

of his disciples and offered presents of more than 10 pieces of copper (bronze) ware of most delicate workmanship.

The Emperor T’ai-tsung gave orders that he should have an audience and that he should be lodged at the T’ai-p’ing-hing-kuo temple.

He bestowed on him a purple

with great kindness. (^ ^) same family name, and that the high of the and Li Fang and they have a ians, all were hereditary, the Emperor sighed, and in the country Sung K’i hearing from him that their kings formed an uninterrupted line of rulers, line of monarchs

offices said to his ministers

These are merely island barbar- and even their for such a long time, form an uninterrupted hereditary succession; this officials (^ and treated him priest’s robe is indeed the “Way lo of the Ancients»!

Thus, the barbarians of a single island caused the Emperor Taitsung to sigh. Cannot these customs be a survival of the spirit inherited from the Tai Po who used the the doctrines of China to change barbarians?

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