Chapter 46

Hainan

January 1, 2022

Hainan is the Chu-ai and Tan-ir of the Han period.

When the Emperor Wu-ti (BC 140-86) 86) had made the conquest of Southern Yue, he sent a mission from Suwon across the sea to reconnoitre Hainan.

As a consequence, the 2 perfectures of Chu-ai and Tan-ir were established.

His successor Chau-ti (BC )

and incorporated it in Chu-ai. On the advice of Kia Kiian-chi the Emperor abandoned Chu-ai, and Liang (502—527) C. 86—73) dropped Tan-ir two prefectures it

was only again occupied in 589—618

In 627 Hainan was divided into 3 departments

  • Ai
  • Tan
  • Chon

They were attached to the province of Ling-nan.

In 631, Kiung shan in Ai was made a prefecture. Wananhien was raised to departmental rank, identical with the military districts of today.

and Ch’ang-hua K’iung-(ch6u)

made with a

which it still some 360 U from the place lies wind when in half a day. if there is made remains. lo (called) Ti-kio-ch’ang The mid-channel has been passed, this 5 the military districts Sfl-w6n on the main-coast, and the passage to ^’^ fair */g); now year of the chon-yucm period (A. D. 789), K’iung was fifth the seat of a military prefecture (M (^ as was raised (^) or Mn with the military districts Tan and Chon were then of the present day; while (H ;^ ^) is can be it called San-ho-liu neither wind nor sea, the sailors can congratulate themselves with raised hands on their good luck^. 15 Ki-yang there is lies at and Su-ki-lang west it the extreme (southern) end of the coast (of Hai-nan), and no land beyond (^ it, but outside there are two ^ ^).

South Vietnam is south of it. West of it is Chonla India. East of it are the Thousand li banks and the Myriad li rocks

Beyond them is the boundless ocean where the sea and the sky blend their colours and the passing ships if it be closely by means of the south-pointiug needle watched by day and night slightest fraction of error The sail only — for life or death depends on the

island (of Hai-nan) departments Qiim) in 20 all, is divided into four prefectures Qtun), eleven 25 being attached to the western circuit (^) of (^ ]^). They lie around the Li-mu mountain (^ -^ (Jj) where the wild Li (1^ :^^) have their huts (^ ^). The Li are divided Kuang-nan , into Savage Li and Semi-civilized there is Li. Although they have much fallow land, not raised enough rice to supply food for the people; to get their they have to make soup of tubers, taro, and fill 30 different kinds of grain; this is the reason for the trade in sweet-scented woods (carried on by the Li)^. The products of the country are gharu-wood, p’ong-lai gharu-wood, ^ cJio-hu-pan-Mang (gharu-wood) (1^ Jj^ ^), tsien-hiang (gharu-wood), shong-Mang (gharu-Wood), cloves, betel-nuts, cocoanuts, cotton (Jd-pei), hemp (^ (^ M)^ #): paper-mulberry bark,- red and white rattan, flowered aid curtains embroidered by the Li rose-wood,’ to’-we?-cM ("^ ^ (^ silk sarongs 1^^), green cassia-wood, g^), kHimg chH-ts’ai (jl ;^ ^), hai-tsH 35T 4fi ISLAND OF HAINAN. ' mm), loEg pepper (f yellow wax, and p). p), fossil galangal (^ crabs J root(^ ^^). Most ^ ^), of glue fi^h 77 (« te products cof; from the mountaxn villages of the Li and are exchanged with the Chinese for salt, iron, fish, and rice; the latter sell them to traders (on the coast)

The junks from Canton go there with samshu, rice, flour, silks, lacquer, ch6u at the end of the year, or in the thither in the fifth or sixth month (i. first e., cargoes of fresh betel-nuts, they must 10 fourth month (i. e., April-May).

Kiung-chou is northeast of the Limu mountain.

prefectural capital period (fjj ^), from Ts’uan- month of the year, so as to return June to August); but, if they want sail earlier, so as to get back in the is Li-mu mountain. The the same as Ai-chou of antiquity. During the chong-Jio was made the headquarters of a military brigade (^ «^) regiment as garrison. It borders on not very hilly. As to the climate, it is rainy in autumn, dry it with the Tsing-hai is in spring, not too hot in are frequent in the 20 sail are laden situated to the north-east of the (1111—1118) the sea, and 15 is to trade, and china ware. They fifth summer, not too cold in winter. Typhoons (H ^) and sixth months (i. e., June to August), and if one accompanied by a rainbow, the latter of these is mother)) (^ is called «storm (or typhoon) -^y. According to the ‘Records of the Sui dynasty’ the people (of K’iung ch6u?) were of a frivolous but cruel nature. They did their hair up in a mallet-shaped knot, and wore clothes made of grasses They kept (^ ^). records by means of notches in pieces of wood, were laborious cultivators, but (^ ^J of uncouth manners. Father and son followed different vocations. Important 25 persons cast bronze into big drums and hung them up in their houses; when one of them beat his drum to call his people (|^ ^), and if they hastened to gather around him in great numbers, he was known as a fu-lau ^ The people wore 30 silk clothes (X M M OB, (^ ^) and made pots out of clay, and household vessels of calabashes. As they had no yeast, they fermented their wine with pomegranate flowers. At the present time their upper garments differ not from those of the men is a They make Chinese, the nether clothing of the the women They still a plaited skirt (|g"). cotton sarong their living (^) and that of by spinning cotton. use earthenware pots, and occasionally calabashes to ladle water; ^ brewing wine they use tubers and grain for ferment (^ -^). Although there are no wealthy people among them, nevertheless, as they are a thrifty 35 in people, there are no poor and one sees no beggars in bad years. When Ting, Duke of Tsin (“f ^ ^), was degraded to the rank of 12178 ^) lie taught the people (of K’iung- Prefectural Finance Commissioner {}]] oj chou) to read books and to compose 1049) Earl Sung Kuan-chi (^ Mng-wu year renovated in the hia (^ ^)^ During the kHng-li period (1041 ^ ;^) built the prefectural college, of the Tiia-ting period (1210) — which was by Earl Chau Ju- on which occasion tablets to the manes of Dukes Su Tung-po (^ f^ ^), 5 Hu Tan-an (]^ ‘^ ^) were erected on the east and west of the Lecture hall, and on the tablet of the hall was written iming ^) iW- Mr sides tam ^^^ ^ (^ ((Understanding and Methods or «Enlighteners of the Way»)^°. In Hai-k'6u (>^ dynasty)) Ma 1,46 ISLAND OF HAINAN. P) there is M ik^&. M)’ where a «Temple of the two Fu-po of the Han manes of Lu Po-to ({^ ]^ f^) and j^) are worshipped. Those who pass by on the sea must pray {^ Yiian (y$ may here, and no one pei-kiau tablets the pursue his journey before learning his luck from tlie (i^ 3^)”- Five towns, K’iung shan (j| jij), Ch’ong-mai (’^ ^), Lin-kau (^ ^), are subordinate to this ^) and Lo-hui j^), W5n-ch’ang district (of K’iung-chou), and in each of them there is a Maritime Customs (^ (^ Collector (1^ junk po (^), the second pau-fou arrives, Magistrate 15 ^y^. The junks which trade there are divided called lo (^I>|), who then the third tan (^)’^. (^ H), a Customs Inspector ("/^ ^) into three classes= the first is When a reports the fact to the District 20 sends an officer to gauge the tonnage and determine the regulation duty. Officials of all ranks, as well as the soldiers, look to this (duty) for their maintenance. After a journey of Ch’ang-hua ( ^ ^) Ch’ang-hua is is 236 li farther west the military district and measure 220 paces According (p’u) around. by the noblewoman Tan-ir for her, of 25 The was f^) reached. situated to the north-west of the the same as the ancient Tan-ch6u “. built (^ (j^ Li-mu mountain, and is city walls are fourteen feet high to ancient records the city ^ ^ \y, she made the goblins and they with baskets and shovels completed the whole (51) “““ork work in a single night. so According to another version the people of this country were called Tan-ir ders. (i. e., ependant ears») because their ears hung down on Although at the present time no children are born in their shoul- Ch’ang-hua with long ears, nevertheless the Li, as devout Buddhists, put big rings in their 35 ears, making them The country climate is to reach is free down to the shoulders ^^ from epidemics (i. e., malaria) and marshes. absolutely different to that of China, all flowers As the bud early in theI>46 ISLAND OF HAINAN. 179 year and have already ceased blooming in the spring, only the water-lily blooms from the fourth or month fifth e., (i. May to June) to the month, and the plum and chrysanthemum follow The people are 5 silk (^ gauzes eyebrows ^), women from hunger or cold (i. The College was 10 city; it (1131 was later — 1163) concerning Minister ch’ang iM- (^ common people suffers originally situated in the south-eastern section of the was again it The Memoir (|g) 3^), Assistant Prime transferred to the eastern. (^ ^ U from the Departmental Capital there is a place :^). When Chau Ting, who was canonized as Duke depth of a few Tan- called Chung-kien degraded to the rank of Magistrate in Ki-yang “, ‘^^^ drought in midsummer; the springs had gone dry during a great all and here, on digging a well, water was found at a has not dried up to the present day, and feet. (This well) «The Minister’s spring» {j^ 20 is called the Siang-ts’iian or ^); as the Pai-ma-tsing-ts’iian or .(White horse well springa ( it is also ^ ^^ ^ ^); a shrine called the Ling-tsi-miau is Ch5n-an gate Tan-ir ^ which {^ ^ ^ A)- was raised she ying Fu-jon (^ P^ ), (^ ^ j^) inside the dedicated to the worship of the noble- is Inuring the sAaM-AM*^ period (1131 to the (^ the Li villages 30 loot in it voyage home. There woman it well has wonderfully good water, and trading junks supply themselves from for the 25 one of the there are no indigents). e., he passed this place, where it No on transferred to the western, but in the shau-hing period ^ M ^ 7^)’ known follow the orthodox (Chinese) fashions (^ ^y
Fifteen 15 They do). was written by Duke Li Kuang it The women do not wear nor do they whiten their faces nor blacken their marriage and funeral ceremonies. in their immediately. it simple, honest, and frugal folk. Chinese (as end of the twelfth J® (il||^) rank of an ^ A. official Noblewoman not invoked “^® away from the a raid on the Tan — 1163) deity under the appellation of Hien- coast (i. e., in vain»). in the mountains) get When much they believe they have solely to thank the district, power of the Fu-j5n. Some 60 li west of the city there sea, a rocky peak shaped like a (^ j^ 35 to the for fact II). The is manes of Marquess Chon Li good wind. The district in a big laguna on an islet of the which the people lion, that there is, is (^ call «the Lion god» here one of the temples consecrated %\ ^^^, where trading junks pray (g ^), Ch’ang-hua, and in a southerly direction, one reaches the has three cities, I-lun Kau-on(^^)^«. After a journey of 340 U 12180 ISUND OF HAINAN. border of the military district of Ki-yang (^ jf]]), is /p founded on the Although the different |^ ^), which (^ Li-mu mountain. The the south-west of the 1,46 capital, a second-class prefecture the (older city of) Ki-yang-hien ^’’. site of of K’iung(-ch6u, districts be reached by land, they are nevertheless so cut villages of the wild Li, that one Hu Tan-an (^ dangero ^ ^ (H To the south p k’ou (’/^ ^) j(^ situated to is must go by sea meant when he off i. Hai-nan) might e., from the Capital by the to get to them. That «Again I passed a great billowy said: ' «^ 1^)=’’. Hai- of the district city (of Ki-yang) is the post-station of ,|^), 5 what is below which traders moor their junks. There is a small lo pavilion in front of this place for the reception of travellers. The country is The climate sparsely peopled. is excessively dry, while, g^ (^ rain They Li-mu mountain); a narrow strip (along the foot of the when the is not normal, for the spring summer is usually already passed, then comes the is 15 pg). cultivate the land without either manuring or weeding Wood- it. bows choppers, herdsmen, fishermen and huntsmen must go about carrying and arrows, as they are always falling in with Li savages. The women do not occupy themselves with raising silkworms and making and sarongs but they weave silk, Li patterns. The 20 with cotton (ki-pel) flowered coverlets, men have no occupation, and live simply from hand to mouth. in spirits, in the and have neither medical science nor medicines. They all believe When some one they slaughter a bullock, then, with beating of drums and music, they ill, an offering of one it it (jjiE,); and this they call is make amaking good luck»; furthermore no allowed to pass by the door (of the sick person). In their mortuary 25 is ceremonies they have music ^^- The country Ij^ ^ ^), ll|^ many have made The College Thirteen li is full of lofty peaks so it has and picturesque mountain scenery come about that among the scholars of the reputations (as able poets) is from the (^ -^ 1^ ^^ i is some tens of (here) there ripples by. is At A. city there is a rock with a surface which is ^ feet in circumference so that visitors as flat as the to make can sit it so. on it; a grove of thick, luxuriant trees, and a cool, clear brooklet 35 this spot the Marquess of Chou (^ ‘^) built a reed hut, and over the entrance he put this superscription «untroubled enjoyment» (‘I^ The |Sj situated in the north-eastern part of the district capital. palm of the hand, without any human labour having been used It ( district villages of the semi-civilized ^). Li are few and far between, theirIj^^ ISLAKD OP HAINAN. dwelling-places being from five to seven 181 The wild Li who formed made raids (upon the country Ch6u sent a head-man of the apart. li over an hundred villages, from- time to time Chinese of the The Marquess settlers). semi-civilized Li on a mission to 6 of them them to get to malie an arrange- weekly market 0)^; after this they came zi (|| on foot with their goods on their backs and shoulders, or else floated down on rafts to trade with the Chinese settlers. The district (of Ki-yang-kiin) was ment ^ for holding a divided into two districts Qiien), Ki-yang and Ning-yuan (^ ^), which, in the chong-ho period 10 (1111—1118), were united into one, Ning-yiian-hien. A hundred and twenty U to the east, one reaches the border of the military district of Wan-an ^). The Wan-an military district is north-east of (|| ^ Li-mu mountain. It was founded the in the fifth year of the the T’ang dynasty (A. D. 631) under the name of Wan-an-chou divided into three districts (him) called Wan-an, Fu-yiin 15 (|Ft| ^). In the beginning of the fien-pau period (742) a department or chou, to a cKi-to period (757) its Mn (^) cMwgr-Awaw period of {j\), and {’^ ^) and Po-Iiau it was changed from or prefecture. In the second year of the name was changed to that of Wan-ts’iian and in the beginning of the kHm-yumi, period (758) it (^ ^), was once more made a department. During the present (Sung) dynasty the two 20 away Po-liau were done (Men) of Fu-yiin and with, and Wan-an-hi6n was called but in the sixth year M-ning{1073)it ^); districts Wan-ning the whole district) was (i. e., (^ made a military district (kun), and the name of Wan-ning was changed to Ling- shui ((^ ;([c); or Men) ^. 25 trict at the present time they are both included (in the one dis- The Chinese (^-)28. settlers of this district live plain and uncouth in their habits, but so law-abiding and They are disliking robbery mixed with the Li and the Tan and theft that people can let their cattle and sheep roam about unguarded without fear of their being wrongfully claimed. Their dwellings are mostly of reeds and bamboo, and seldom have tiled 30 Women roofs. do not make in sorcery of all ages occupy themselves with weaving cotton, but they patterns on (^), and it. The devils, (to sick take no medicine. whom) they sacrifice ness and aid. After the establishment of the 35 (^ -^ ^)”, cine. In the eastern part of the city the their faith drug shops by Huang Hou- they gradually came to see the advantage of taking medi- shon of first They put an ox, praying for happi- ship-captain Tu-kang» (M is the Po-chu Tu-kang-miau or «Temple ± ^ M profound faith prays here for an omen (|>.), M^- Whosoever with gets a reply. Passing ships182 ISLAND OF HAINAN. make an 1,46 The annual and here before proceeding (farther). offering tri- ennial examinations for literary degrees for the three prefectures (of Ch’ang- hua, Ki-yang and Wan-chou) are all held, with those for K’iung-chou, (at this place). The native called Li tribes of the four prefectures of the island of (^). The Li-mu mountain cheering glitter (jj^ its According tures. which 3fe)> of the island Hai-nan are recognizable at night by is the four adjacent prefec- is visible in all a passage in the Tsin-shu (or History of the Tsin to dynasty) referring to the divisions of the land, (this) division, which wu-nu the influence of the (^ ^) stars Li-niu Li-wu the (^ name (^ star ;;^), is said to The dwelling places (^) under Li-mu (^ (§) of the native tribes are situated around this generally wrapped in fog. The Li themselves only rarely see days, when -^ S)^”- ;p[ five streams, azure peak its There -^j ^’. mountain, whose summit rises to an extraordinarily great height, for autumn lo are (collectively) called the sound of which has been corrupted to ^), of the mountain) is be under the light of the ^), which (^ and Wu-nii 5 floating as is visible, it it, were it is 15 save on clear in space (y^ a spring on this mountain which bubbles up to form is one of which flows to (the town of) Ch’ang-hua, one to Ki-yang, one to Wan-an, two to K’iung-chou, one of which becomes a big creek (;^) 20 and, with 36 rapids (in ^ ^) (^^ ^ M) (M. rapids (in (^ its ^ ^), to the village of Chang-liau the other becomes a small course), runs to the village of Chu-yiin ^ {^ Lo-hui-hi6n ^^ and 24 down course), flows Ch’ong-mai-hien ^^ creek which, with each other its ^). These two become the San-ho-shui streams flow into (^ -^ ^), which goes to 25 K’iung-shan-hien. (Those of the aborigines) are called 8hdng-Li are called SMu-IA (i. (i. e., e., who live in the ‘Wild Li’), those who ‘Tame Li’), daily, so it is they remain under one who must belong Li (^) family. not possible to chief, to either the live nearer (to the Chinese) and these latter are under the control of the nearest one of the four Military districts Li grow remotest parts of the province know {^). The villages (ilij^f) of the 30 their populousness. Neither do but usually each village has Wang its own head-man Fu (^), the Chang (gg) or the name may inter-marry. Frequently (3g), the Persons of the same family Chinese criminals seek refuge among the Li. The males wear their hair 35 twisted in a knot, they go barefooted and stick silver, copper or pewter pins in their hair. hang down The women wear copper rings and ear-pendants which to their shoulders. Young girls when they reach marriageable ageISLAND OF HAINAN. 1,46 have their cheeks ^), when and, finely tattooed; this the tattooing to offer congratulations. buy Chinese coloured called «emhroidering the face» draw out the coloured threads and weave silk stuffs, sacrifice to the an hundred 10 (in their country), (^ ^); they also is neither salt nor iron, nor shrimps fish, they barter for them with the neighbouring Chinese settlers with gharu-wood, unbleached cotton cloth, tree-cotton, and hemp for they do not make use (Hff^ ^), of coined money. Their dwellings have bamboo frames; the ground fioor occupied by is The men carry usually their live-stock, the inhabitants live in the upper part. 15 make gods oxen, dogs, fowls, and pigs, often as many as a time). As there (at their faces ^^ spinning and weaving, for which purpose they is these with tree-cotton (tJ; j^^) into single curtains excellent cloth of (both kinds of) cotton. They (|§ completed, the relatives and friends assemble Female slaves do not «embroider» The women’s work 5 is is 183 ^ a long wooden-handled knife (fg) and a long bow (5§ ); they do not take them. They delight in taking revenge and killing (their ene- a step without mies), they call this «seizing» they lay hold of and fetter (:^ ^j)- ^^ the case of a relative being killed, some member of the family of the (dead man’s) of his village, and, for a fetter, they use a piece of hchee-wood six enemy or and in shape 20 feet long like a foot-pestle (^^). Then they demand of the prisoner, before they will release him, either a cow, wine, silver, or a pitcher «ransom his to (^), life» the conclusion of a marriage contract they break an arrow in On two as a proof of good 25 dances sacrifice as they call it^^ and singing. faith. When The festivals are held with beating of drums, a person dies they always kill an ox as a ^’. Among (varieties of the native products of this country the ch’on-shui and fong-lai gharu-wood) take the first rank in the Hiang-p’u (^ |f )^. The mountains are covered with areca and cocoanut palms; there are 30 ponies, kingfishers’ feathers, from Min (i. e., and yellow wax^^ It often also happens that traders Fu-kien), driven on the coast by storms and having lost to make everything in the wreck of their junks, have gone into the Li country people are travelling a living by tilling the soiP®. “When Chinese officials or to the native villages, they can expect perfect security when they stop in the 35 houses of (these Chinese inland-settlers). Hai-nan keep guard Military posts of the four departments (^fj) of four quarters (pg |5^), along outside the (territory of the) Tame Li in the a line of a thousand U. There is a road like a connecting ring (between184 ISLAND Of HAINAN. A the posts). 1,46 person wishing to take a trip through this country could not do so in less than a month ^’. When Ma Fu-po to (J^ jf^ jj^) had pacified Hai-nan, he ordered potters make some earthenware vessels {^), the larger of which held several piculs of rice, the smaller (the natives), even mission, from five to two or three from the most remote and he gave (these Then he who had made villages, them vessels) to bushels. By at their choice. invited 5 their sub- this means he was enabled to form an idea of the accessibility, or otherwise, of their nests and caves bushels, The Wild Li took the small jars of two or three (^ ^). and when asked the reason, replied that they had from steep cliffs and the (forks of) trees (^ come down all lo ;^) and that they could not take the big ones, because they feared that they would not be able to carry them home. By were deep in the interior, in precipitous Among of Li this (the General) learnt that their villages (^) very common, because this clan Wang (^), In the of the wild Li of the ^) and inaccessible places many descended from first is of 1820 their submission to Chinese rule. Chung- won (3£ name is the Li who bear the surname year of the shun-M period (1174) the head-man Wu-cM-shan number with a population ^) descended from the Li. At (i ^fg* ^]), Wang by name, gathered together the neighbouring Li Wang (il||^[ ^^. (the Chinese) population of the four prefectures the clan is the present time there are of and caves Chung-k’i (3£ adult males (X), for the purpose of When i^ ‘^) and fiji villages, eighty in 20 making Chung-k’i and the various head-men, others, in all eighty- one men, repaired to K’iung (-chou) to present themselves, they bound themselves, by an oath taken in the Hien-ying-miau ^ i^ The Prefect lence. (^ |§ by stone-rubbing and blood-drinking (§f to desist from rapine and acts of vio- j||), 25 up misdoing and J^)j to give of K’iung-chou arranged drawings of their outward ^ appearance and of their clothing which were submitted to the Viceroy (|g alf^. (According to these drawings) those of the natives who wore their hair in a knot (or knob) and uncovered, red silk, or wrapped the hair wrapped the lower part of the knot with 30 entirely in coloured silk, or else they wore little ornamented bamboo hats but all of them wore two :^ ^), (>J> silver combs stuck in their hair. Some of them wore a short embroi- dered skirt*”- Wang Chung-k’i was further distinguishable by a blue turban flaring (^ ^) ( rtl ) and a long red silk brocade gown, bound round with a girdle. himself said that this was a brocade the suan-lo period (1 1 gown which one 9— 1 1 26), had received He of his ancestors, during from the Emperor for having ceded a piece of land to the Chinese Government”. 1

Its products are also found in foreign lands. The difference is in their quality.

Its gharu-wood from Kiung far surpass those from foreign lands by the quality and strength of their perfume.

Those from South Vietnam and Chonla India are not to be compared with them.

On the other hand, Hainan’s yellow wax is nothing compared to that of Sumatra. It is even inferior to that of the Visayas.

Its other prodcts are mostly like those of foreign lands, with the exception of betel-nuts and cotton which are extraordinarily plentiful.

The Cantonese traders look principally to cotton as a profitable article.

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